Unobtrusive Health Monitoring in Private Spaces: The Smart Vehicle
Unobtrusive in-vehicle health monitoring has the potential to use the driving time to perform regular medical check-ups. This work intends to provide a guide to currently proposed sensor systems for in-vehicle monitoring and to answer, in particular, the questions: (1) Which sensors are suitable for in-vehicle data collection? (2) Where should the sensors be placed? (3) Which biosignals or vital signs can be monitored in the vehicle? (4) Which purposes can be supported with the health data? We reviewed retrospective literature systematically and summarized the up-to-date research on leveraging sensor technology for unobtrusive in-vehicle health monitoring. PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Scopus delivered 959 articles. We firstly screened titles and abstracts for relevance. Thereafter, we assessed the entire articles. Finally, 46 papers were included and analyzed. A guide is provided to the currently proposed sensor systems. Through this guide, potential sensor information can be derived from the biomedical data needed for respective purposes. The suggested locations for the corresponding sensors are also linked. Fifteen types of sensors were found. Driver-centered locations, such as steering wheel, car seat, and windscreen, are frequently used for mounting unobtrusive sensors, through which some typical biosignals like heart rate and respiration rate are measured. To date, most research focuses on sensor technology development, and most application-driven research aims at driving safety. Health-oriented research on the medical use of sensor-derived physiological parameters is still of interest.