Effective Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium and Divalent Nickel Ions from Water through Polyaniline, Iron Oxide, and Their Composites
Water pollution caused by industrial wastes containing heavy metals and dyes is a major environmental problem. This study reports on the synthesis, characterization, and utilizations of Polyaniline (PANI) and its composites with Fe3O4 for the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and divalent nickel Ni(II) ions from water. The adsorption data were fitted in Freudlich, Langmuir, Tempkin, Dubbanin–Ruddishkawich (D–R), and Elovich adsorption isotherms. The Freundlich isotherm fits more closely to the adsorption data with R2 values of 0.9472, 0.9890, and 0.9684 for adsorption of Cr(VI) on Fe3O4, PANI, and PANI/Fe3O4 composites, respectively, while for adsorption of Ni(II) these values were 0.9366, 0.9232, and 0.9307 respectively. The effects of solution pH, initial concentration, contact time, ionic strength, and adsorbent dosage on adsorption behavior were investigated. The adsorption ability of composites was compared with pristine PANI and Fe3O4 particles. Activation energy and other thermodynamic properties such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy indicated spontaneous and exothermic adsorption.